General Principles of Humanitarian Law

Since 1864, the International Humanitarian Law has developed its own general principles of law, which also constitute – according to the Art. 38 of Statute of International Court of Justice (ICJ) – sources of law. This approach was confirmed in the jurisprudence of ICJ and International Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia.

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Principle of distinctions in Humanitarian Law

Principle of distinction is one of the cardinal principles that constitute the fabric of humanitarian law. Military attacks are authorised against military objectives, combatants and members of armed forces as well as against civilians who directly participating in hostilities (so called legitimate targets). The purpose of this principle is to restrict warfare to acts of violence against the enemy combatants. The civilian (and its objectives) shall be spared against the effects of hostilities. Conversely, the combatants who directly participate in conduct of hostilities are legitimate military target at all times except when they are rendered hors de combat. Continue reading Principle of distinctions in Humanitarian Law

Every day is a Human Rights Day


In September 2016 I became a lecturer at the Royal University of Law and Economics in Phnom Penh where I now teach International Human Rights Law. This new extracurricular activity gives me the opportunity to share my knowledge with Cambodian students, to learn new things and to do something extra besides my work duties. I teach the young generation of Cambodians; a generation who, one day, will shape the future of this nation. Let me share with you my reflection on Education. Continue reading Every day is a Human Rights Day

Transport – a story about white cars in Cambodia

It is not very easy to ride a bicycle in Cambodia. The Kingdom of Wonder is full of (mostly white) cars and motorcycles, while bikes are not a significant part of the Cambodian landscape. Oddly enough, it is mostly foreigners and poor people who use bikes in everyday life Read more ->

Situation of human rights in Somalia

The political stability and security situation in Somalia has recently improved. The country is building state capacity with support from the international community. The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) consists of military component monitor the situation and contributes to the consolidation of peace and reconciliation in Somalia. On the national level, National Leadership Forum was established, which consists of the high-level political actors and representatives from the regions. The Forum is a non-constitutional, ad ad-hoc mechanism of political cooperation at the high-level. In the meantime Somalia is drafting new federal constitutions. Continue reading Situation of human rights in Somalia

Recovery of the Polish Armed Forces

In the middle of the second decade of the 21-century Polish Army remains a mix of soviet, post-soviet and modern armed forces (for example having three different types of tanks). The professional army (after abolishing the conscription in 2009) is professional only on the paper- many polish units have skeleton staff (40-60% of the regular size), particularly in the neighbourhood of the Russian border. Another problem, which has to be solved, is that the eastern part of Poland is almost empty from forces. Continue reading Recovery of the Polish Armed Forces

Reforming the EU after Brexit

The EU currently has to confront new challenges that require greater effort. The Brexit is the biggest crisis in the recent European history of integration. The European Union has simply lost its face. We cannot anymore say that the EU is the greatest integration project in the humanity if there is a country which wants to leave this paradise. The big players in the world like China might treat the European Union less seriously. I am pointing at China because the United States never threatened the EU as an equal partner and the awareness of the importance of the EU has been very low in the US. Continue reading Reforming the EU after Brexit