Integration for Ukraine

Ukraine is divided into many dimensions. One part of the country seceded and joined Russian Federation (with its strong support); and two separatist regions declared independence (not recognised by anyone, even Russia). Ukraine is divided by languages – half of the population speaks Russian, half Ukrainian on a daily basis. Even if the spread of Russian language is decreasing (also due to the detachment of Crimea and Donbas region), the language plays a significant role in the country. There are still places in Ukraine, although Continue reading Integration for Ukraine


A political or economic union for the EU?

Brexit has shaken our confidence in the European Union; the talks about the reforms are on the top of Juncker’s, Schulz’s and Tusk’s agendas. In which direction should the European project move? Due to the ghost of Brexit, the reform process is a race against the clock. If the UK performs better in the long run (it is always easier to solve problems in small countries, let alone international organisations) and Europe Continue reading A political or economic union for the EU?

Could EU army threaten NATO?

The new European Army announced by J-C Juncker last year is a project which has generated lots of debate. The project being still only under discussions will be beyond doubt very to implement. The key issue is a potential relationship between European Army and NATO. The European Army should be a new structure, which regroups some units of the EU Member States. Continue reading Could EU army threaten NATO?

Principle of National Treatment

The principle of national treatment stands alongside with most-favoured-nation treatment (MFN), one of the most significant pillars of the World Trade Organization. It is included in the Art III of GATT and prohibits any discrimination for foreign products, as compared to similar domestic goods. The aim of the commitment is therefore to grant the best possible treatment in relation to these products and to prevent any form of protectionism — measures that differentiate domestic and imported goods. Continue reading Principle of National Treatment

The scope of the likeness in Art III:4 – competitive relationship in the market place

As regard to the criteria of Border Tax the Appellate Body in the EC-Asbestos case hold that competitive relationship is highly relevant and both necessary and sufficient for determination of likeness standard under Art III:4 and therefore regulatory purposes are irrelevant. National treatment principle can be applicable only with respect to ‘like products’ being in a close competitive relationship in the marketplace. Consequently, protectionist measures can be possibly applied only with the purpose of affecting the significant situation in the market of such products.[1] The Appellate Body stated as following:

Continue reading The scope of the likeness in Art III:4 – competitive relationship in the market place

The scope of the likeness in Art III:4 – determination of relevant criteria

As previously pointed, the ‘like product’ terms of Article III:4, although broader than the first sentence of Article III:2, is certainly not broader than the combined product scope of the two sentences of Article III:2.

The EC-Asbestos case constitutes a guideline for the determination of the criteria of ‘like products’ within the meaning of Article III:4. First, the Appellate Body highlighted that the Report of the Working Party on Border Tax Adjustments outlined an approach for analysing ‘likeness’ standard under Art III:4. This traditional method has been developed ipso facto by several rapports of WTO Panels and the Appellate Bodies with regard to Art III:2. In analysing ‘likeness’ it should be taken into account the four general criteria such as:

Continue reading The scope of the likeness in Art III:4 – determination of relevant criteria

Forum Mondial pour Alimentation et l’Agriculture

On peut dénicher les racines du Forum Mondial pour Alimentation et l’Agriculture dans les années quatre-vingts quand les organisateurs de l’IGW se sont décidés d’arranger l’Internationale Forum de Politique Agricole de l’Association de Agriculteurs allemands[1]. Le cycle de conférence avait eu lieu la première fois en 1981. Néanmoins, les sujets de discussions concernaient plutôt les aspects internationaux, mais seulement en rapport avec l’agriculture de l’autre côté du Rhin, telles que, par exemple, les facilités d’exportation de produits agroalimentaires.

Après la réunification en 1990, les objectifs de la politique allemande Continue reading Forum Mondial pour Alimentation et l’Agriculture