Situation of human rights in Somalia

The political stability and security situation in Somalia has recently improved. The country is building state capacity with support from the international community. The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) consists of military component monitor the situation and contributes to the consolidation of peace and reconciliation in Somalia. On the national level, National Leadership Forum was established, which consists of the high-level political actors and representatives from the regions. The Forum is a non-constitutional, ad ad-hoc mechanism of political cooperation at the high-level. In the meantime Somalia is drafting new federal constitutions. The main discussion concerns the adoption of a parliamentary or presidential system, the separation of power between the President and the Prime Minister, and lastly the relations between federal state and regional states. The process of adoption of the new constitutions will not be finalized by 2016 and it is a reason why the elections have been postponed (there was also a considerable risk of election fraud).

A positive development can also be observed in the area of policy making. In June 2016 the Federal Government adopted the multiannual National Development 2017-2019. The representatives of civil society also participated in consultation, which makes the elaboration of the plan more inclusive. The plan identifies development priorities, provides coordination mechanism and consolidates government actions to implement the Sustainable Development Goals in Somalia. The Plan mainstreams human rights (particularly women participation in social, political and economic life), civil development and democracy.

Somalia submitted its national report to the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review at its twenty-fourth session. Most of the recommendations made at the session of the Human Rights Council were accepted (168 out of 228, in addition 60 were noted). Despite the improvement in security situation and positive political development in the country, many fundamental human rights are still violated.

Violations of the right of life, liberty and security of person are recorded due to the ongoing hostilities in some provinces. Somalia also failed to abolish the death penalty, partially because of religious and cultural grounds. Positive development can be observed in prions, where detained persons can benefit the basic facilities (water, medicine and bedding).

The rights of women have improved in the recent years, although violence against women and girls remains the most significant challenge. The political establishment has accepted a quote of 30% representation of women in political life. The rule was respected in last parliament elections. The UN-Women supports projects for the empowerment of women in public affairs, justice and rule of law. Violence against women continues in Somalia, also because of the fragile security situation. The government undertook actions to combat the violence to increase the policy capacity to investigate cases, establish gender desks and collect evidence.

Over the last two year, Somalia is steadily building peace and stability in the country. Its priority is to strengthen justice and rule of law institutions, such as the judiciary and police, governance and reconciliation, and social service delivery programmes. Recently the Parliament adopted National Human Rights Commission Bill, which is awaiting the Presidential signature.

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